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Full text of "The Boston Kugel Volume 1 Number 2 (Nov-Dec 1983)"



m 



OOCTTie Boston Computer Society 












THE BOSTON KUGEL 



NOV-DEC 1983 



THE BOSTON KAYPRO USERS' GROUP 

VOL 1 NO 2 



by 



DIRECTOR'S NOTES 
Lee Lockwood, Co-Director 



Welcome to the second issue of the 
KUGEL. The first issue was so popular 
that we've "sold out 11 (accolades to Alan 
Chapman, the KUGEL f s editor, for the fine 
job). However, if you didn t get a copy 
all is not lost, the entire issue is 
available on disk in the BOSKUG library. 












In September, we moved our meetings to 
the Minuteman Regional Tech/Voc School in 
Lexington (Rte 2A just west of Rte 128), 
and we are gradually getting used to the 
new surroundings. Apologies to all who 
ave had trouble finding the way; it's 
ather byzantine at first, but worth the 
effort once you're there. We are still 
working out the logistics of power cords, 
acoustics, program formats, etc., and 
hope you are bearing with us. Just like 
moving into a new home, it takes a while 
to get unpacked and settled, and to 
become used to the new neighborhood. 

MEETINGS 

Our meetings are now on a regular 
schedule: every 2nd and 4th Tuesday each 
month. One meeting each month is devoted 
to a program, the other to workshops. 
Suresh Shenoy and John Callahan, BOSKUG 
program co-chairmen, deserve much credit 
for their work in organizing progams 
through Spring, 1984. 

I especially invite BOSKUG members who 
have not yet attended meetings at the 
Minuteman facility to come to one of our 
workshop meetings where, after a brief 
presentation, we break down into small 
working groups around computers. These 
mini-workshops are on various applica- 
tions for the Kaypro and vary according 
to people's interests. At October's 
workshop meeting, we had a presentation 

i Plu*Perfect Writer (an improvement on 
Perfect Writer which is reviewed in this 
Kugel), and small "hands-on" workshops 
in: Plu*Perfect Writer, Wordstar, Perfect 
Calc, Perfect Filer and Basic. 



At future workshop meetings, we plan 
to have regular groups for each of the 
Perfect Software programs as well as 
modem communications, MUMPS, public 
domain CP/M utilities, and other subjects 
in which you express interest. 

The "Early-Bird" beginner's tutorial, 
held from 6:30 to 7:30 on the second 
Tuesday of each month, (11/8, 12/13, 
1/10) is going nicely in the capable 
hands of Kaypro's Mike Weiss. Anyone who 
has just bought a Kaypro or is thinking 
of buying one is invited to attend. 



MEMBERSHIP QUESTIONNAIRE 

If you have never filled out a BOSKUG 
membership questionnaire, please do so. 
The questionnaire is our principal means 
of learning who you are, your interests 
and skills, and other information 
necessary to help us determine the kinds 
of programs and activities BOSKUG should 
have. It is also used to maintain 
up-to-date mailing addresses. You can 
pick up a copy of the questionnaire at 
any BOSKUG meeting, or by contacting 
BOSKUG Secretary Diane Bushee (437-2863 
days; 787-1824 eves). 

(cont. p. 2) 

IN THIS ISSUE: 





















Director f s Note 1 

User ' s Corner 2 

"The Perfect Manual for the 
Kaypro II" Book Review: 



A Beginner s View 
A Pro's View 






3 

3 

Bulletin Boards 4 

The Swap Shoppe 4 

Library Notes 5 

Software Reviews: 

Plu*Perf ect 6 

Smartkey 7 

Flexible Printing with Perfect 

Writer 8 

Bytes, Nibbles & Bits 9 

The Case of the Undocumented 

Perfect Writer Commands 10 

BOSKUG Phone Directory 11 

BOSKUG Meeting Schedule 12 



DIRECTOR'S NOTE - (cont from p. 1) 

SOFTWARE 

Bob Craig, who gave us a wonderful 
presentation on the MUMPS programming 
language, is organizing a BOSKUG software 
evaluation team to identify, access and 
evaluate some of the more promising 
software packages th£t will run on the 
Kaypro. One of the team's first 
priorities is to look at alternative 
database programs to Perfect Filer. If 
you're interested in working with this 
group — you needn't be an expert to 
contribute — call Bob at 232-8005 (days). 

If you haven't seen it yet, Charlie 
Bowen, our software co-librarian, has put 
together a disk of public domain CP/M- 
based utilities with full documentation 
that is now available in the library for 
copying. Great for beginners — and 
indespensable for experts! 

WANTED: "HARD COPY" LIBRARIAN 

We have been accumulating a lot of 
books, manuals, other users groups' 
newsletters, etc. in the BOSKUG library. 



We would like to organize this material 
so that members can look at it during 
meetings and be able to "sign out" pieces 
to take home between meetings. The main 
job is getting the material organized. 
It does not mean a commitment to attend 
every meeting. It does entail making 
sure that SOMEBODY brings the library to 
each meeting, however. 

KUGEL ADVERTISING MANAGER 

To continue to bring you this news- 
letter regularly, we need to generate 
advertising revenue to pay for it. We 
don't need a lot of advertising - 2 or 3 
pages worth should pay the freight. We 
need someone to set-up and monitor the 
advertising. We have ad rate and contract 
information from other BCS user group 
newsletters, so much of the planning work 
is done. The main job will be to sign up 
advertisers (preferably on 3- or 6-issue 
contracts) and insure we get the ad copy. 
BCS will handle the money for us. 

If you can help us in either of these 
important areas, please call me at 
965-6343. ■ 



USER'S CORNER 






GAMES PEOPLE PLAY 
CAMEL - When it asks for 
a new game, type a lower 
case "yes" or "y," and . ___ 
CAMEL will restart with- 
out responding "Chicken." 

STRTRK.BAS works properly 
with OBASIC. It produces 
errors when run with 
MBASIC. g (Rick & Libby 

Hillenbrand) 

LADDER - RUNG 2: Jay 
Giuttari reports from 
Rhode Island that his 7- 
year-old daughter, 
Camille, scored 1,200,000 
on Ladder and was still 
going strong when bedtime 
arrived. That sounds 
remarkably like a chal- 
lenge, doesn't it? Aw- 
right, you Ladder freaks, 
let's hear from you. fl 

ASCII PRINT WHEEL FOR 

DAISXWRITER/BROTHER 

PRINTERS 

The standard daisy 
wheels available for the 
DaisyWriter and Brother 
printers have the normal 
typewriter characters but 
not ASCII symbols, hence 
they do match the Kaypro 



keyboard. An ASCII-stan- 
dard daisy wheel is now 
available in Brougham 
(Courier) 10 from DATA 
INTERNATIONAL CORP., 373 
Main Street, Stoneham, 

MA, ^38-0300. It is it 

10-pitch wheel, but 
prints very well at 12 
cpi. The wheel (part no. 
AE-13) costs $30.00, but 
BOSKUG members get a 15% 
discount. 



it is, however, a 
use ribbon and is 









PRINTER RIBBONS 

Getting the best value 
in printer ribbons invol- 
ves some investigation. 
The best buys are not 
necessarily the lowest 
priced ribbons. Okidata 
and similar dot matrix 
printers use a two-spool, 
^ inch wide ribbon. 
These ribbons are sold by 
many mail order firms 
considerably cheaper than 
local computer stores, 
but be careful what 
you're getting. Many of 
the "bargain" ribbons are 
on spools with 5 mm holes 
which are too large for 
the 4 mm spindle on the 
Okidata printer. I found 
the CORONA 4B ribbon is 
the right diameter and the 
right price ($2.25). 









Daisywriters and some 
other LQP's use the IBM 
ribbon* There are a num- 
ber of ribbon types that 
fit. The least expensive 
is the carbon film ribbon; -~ 

one-time 
only 

good for 100,000 charac- 
ters. Multi-strike ribbons 
cost almost twice as much; 
they are also one-time use 
ribbons, but they print 
500,000 characters and 
they make a better perma- 
nent impression. IBM 

Multi-strike ribbons sell 
for app. $7.00 each. 
Other brands are available 
in the $5-6.00 range, but 
I have found the ALCAR 
equivalent (No. 36B-Tech 
III) every bit as good and 
half the cost ($3.50). 

STATIONERY UNLIMITED, 
70 Boston Post Road (Rte 
20), Wayland (891-8310) is 
an excellent source for 
these or any other rib- 
bons. Their prices are 
low, and if they don't 
stock the ribbon you need, 
they'll get it for you 
within a week. fl| """ 

(Bob Waters) 

(cont. p. 5) 






2 









J^ 



REVIEW: THE PERFECT MANUAL FOR THE KAYPRO II 
T. Gregory Piatt & Roz Van Meter (PeopleTalk Assocs., 1983, $17.95) 

A BEGINNER'S VIEW 



■ 



/ 



by Phyllis Mutschler 

It is difficult to characterize THE 
PERFECT MANUAL for the KAYPRO II as 
either useful or a complete waste of 
money. Its utility depends on the 
clarity of the documentation accompanying 
your Kaypro software. 

The original Perfect Writer documenta- 
tion, for example, is fairly complete 
(although presented in the wrong order). 

TPM has many pages that merely repeat 
mtormation contained in the original, 
and it continually directs you to the 
lessons disk that came with Perfect 
Writer. It does, however, document a 
number of Perfect Writer commands which 
are not found in the PW manual. 

With Perfect Calc, however, where a 
great deal of valuable information is 
missing from the original manual, TPM 
provides several pages of suggestions and 
explanations that comfort and enlighten a 
frustrated user. TPM shines when it is 
providing information on sample spread- 
sheets, common problems, idiosyncrasies 
and suggestions for using Perfect Calc. 

To try out TPM from the perspective of 
a first-time computer user, I used it for 
an introduction to Perfect Filer, with 
which I had no previous experience. In 
general, TPM is clear in its explanation 
about how to use the program with the 
"Individual" and Organizational" data- 
bases provided with the program, however, 
so isn't the Perfect Filer manual. TPM 
does include the important admonition 
that you should build your own database 
disk, and it tells you how to do this. 

What it does not tell you is how to 
create your own database and how to for- 
mat a list. It simply directs you to 
read the chapters in the Perfect Filer 
manual and perform the tutorials dealing 
with these difficult tasks. The trouble 
is that these chapters omit valuable 
information (e.g., the function of field 
tags, how to use alternatives in genera- 
ting mail, etc.) Further, you are expec- 
ted to be able to generalize from the 
specifics provided in the tutorials to a 
wide range of other situations. TPM 
could have performed a service if it had 
provided more generic rules for accomp- 
lishing these tasks, or by expanding on 
che original documentation. 

(cont. p. 4) 



A PRO'S VIEW 
by Suresh V. Shenoy 

If you have just purchased your Kaypro 
and decided to read through the CP/M 
manual first - chances are that you will 
be totally exasperated and give up!! 
What is needed even more than "user- 



friendly" computers, is "user-friendly" 
documentation. Clear, concise, step-by- 
step instructions on how to use what you 
have just bought. The Perfect Manual sets 
out to do just tha~t^ but it only par- 
tially succeeds. I give the manual a 
qualified nod of approval. 

The introduction to CP/M in this man- 
ual is perhaps its greatest asset. It is 
a far cry from the intimidating technical 
dissertation from DIGITAL RESEARCH and 
nonchalantly passed off as a user's man- 
ual by KAYPRO. The authors exhibit a 
good working knowledge of the most common 
CP/M commands and help a first-time user 
quickly become familiar with their usage. 

The rest of the manual is anything but 
"Perfect." But then neither is the soft- 
ware that this manual is supposed to help 
us learn. The Perfect Software documen- 
tation included with your Kaypro is 
illustrative and detailed. However, its 
sequence of instructions is questionable. 
Consequently, first-time users find them- 
selves flipping back-and-forth through 
the pages trying to keep the logic 
straight. The Perfect Manual authors 
have tried to eliminate that and lend a 
sense of continuity to the reading. How- 
ever, in the process of simplification, 
you are continually referred to the 
original documentation and lessons. In 
other words, TPM , at best, is a supple- 
ment to the original documentation, not a 
substitute for it. 

Some of TPM's unique features include 
discussions on the undocumented commands 
(e.g. Write Region command), common ques- 
tions and problems, idiosyncrasies of 
Perfect Filer and Perfect Calc. It is 
consoling to the first-time user to know 
that there might be problems in the soft- 
ware that everyone encounters and not 
take it personally! 






In conclusion, TPM can be useful to a 
novice in that it provides easy-to-read 
instructions without complicated "compu- 
tereze," but for serious program applica- 
tions and genuine problem-solving, there 
is no substitute for hands-on practice. 
And, of course, active participation in 
BOSKUG meetings! 









3 



BULLETIN BOARDS 

BOSKUG currently has three screens on the BOSTON 
COMPUTER SOCIETY BULLETIN BOARD (969-9660). Latest 
information about meetings, speakers, and other BOSKUG 
doings can be accessed by logging onto the BCS board 
and choosing menu option "Manufacturers K-R." 

Here is a listing of bulletin boards we know about. 
Let us know of changes to this list as well as others 
you find. Unless other noted, all are free, operate 
24 hours and are 300-baud. 



BOSTON AREA 



BINEX 

BOSTON COMPUTER SOCIETY 

BOSTON BULLET 

HEATH (after 6 p.m.) 

KAYPRO NORTHEAST REGION OFFICE 
(Mon-Thurs, 5 p.m. - 9 a.m.) 

LAWRENCE HOSPITAL 

MACRO EXCHANGE (Billerica) ... 
NEW ENGLAND COMPUTER SOCIETY . 
SUPERBRAIN (Lexington) 



OUT OF STATE 



.... 



423-6985 
969-9660 

266-7789 
237-1511 

Framingham) 

620-1734 

623-2119 
667-7388 

646-3610 
862-0781 



.... 



.... 



.... 



NATIONAL KAYPRO USERS GROUP (Chicago) 

312) 882-6747 

(201) 272-1874 



«.«««.. 



(New number as 10/1/83) 

NJ KUG 

STEVE SANDERS (Tampa, Fl) 

(Has Kaypro version of Modem 7-1 

downloading) 

TORONTO (CP/M) 

WARD CHRISTENSEN (Chicago) 

PEOPLE LINKS (New York City) 

ARCNET (New York City) 

MEET YOUR MATE (NY City - Spicy! 



(813) 937-3608 
1 available for 



) 



(416) 826-5398 

(312) 789-0499 

(212) 877-7703 

(212) 881-7370 

(212) 541-5975 









- 



A BEGINNER'S VIEW 
(cont. from p. 3) 

I did find the chapter 
on "Additional CP/M Com- 
mands M useful, especially 
the discussion of PIP. All 
told, there were perhaps 30 
pages of prose in these 
sections that make life 
with a Kaypro more pleasant. 

TPM f s tone is supposed 
to be user friendly, but I 
found it cutesy and cloy- 
ing. The authors seem to 
assume that users: 1) need 
constant reminders to °warm 
boot T when inserting a new 
disk into a drive (which 
they incorrectly say is 
"CTRL-X CTRL-C n instead of 
just "CTRL-C"); 2) have not 
read or understood the 
introductory chapters of 
the various manuals pro- 
vided with the Perfect 
software; and 3) will not 



notice how much TPM dupli- 
cates the Perfect manuals. 



In summary, 

prove useful to the 



TPM may 

novice, 






especially when working 
with Perfect Calc. But, in 
my view, it's not worth 
$18. When you're ready to 
tackle Perfect Calc, borrow 
a copy for a few days, if 
you can. Jf 

[Ed. note: We spotted 
another Kaypro manual on 
the shelf at B. Dalton 
Booksellers the other day, 
which, on a quick reading, 
appears more complete. THE 
KAYPRO USER'S HANDBOOK , 
(Weber Systems, Inc., 1983, 
$14.95) covers operation of 
the Kaypro II, all the 
Perfect Software, Profit 
Plan, S and M Basic and 
Word Plus. We'll try to 
review it in the next KUGEL. 1 



INTRODUCING... 

THE SWAP SH0PPE 

A new KUGEL feature - a ~^ 
classified ad section for 
selling, buying or 
swapping computer-related 

items or services. SWAP 
SH0PPE ads are free to 
BOSKUG members for per- 
sonal notices; there is a 
$5.00 per ad charge for 
non-members or commercial 
ventures. Ads must be 50 
words or less, including 
contact information . 

Although we will try to 
insure that all ads are 
legitimate, The KUGEL 
accepts no responsibility 
for the quality, terms or 
condition of any product 
or service advertised. We 

also reserve the right to 
refusd or edit any copy 
we feel is inappropriate. 

Include your name, 
address and phone with 
your submission if is not 
included in the ad copy. 
Send copy (with payment, — , 
when appropriate, made out 
to BOSTON COMPUTER 
SOCIETY) to: KUGEL o/c 
Alan Chapman, 70 Gregory 
Rd., Framingham, MA 01 701. | 

******* 

PERFECT FILER CONSULTING - 
I am available to consult 
on the uses of Perfect 
Filer, teach you how to 
use it or create databases 
for you. $35/hour or 
$200/day. Contact Mike 
Holmes at 15 Arnold Place, 
New Bedford, MA 02740, 
(617) 993-0156. g 

THE BACKSIDER - 5i" flippy 
kits for making single- 
sided disks into double- 
sided. Doubles your disk 
capacity; simple to use; 
pays for itself with less 
than one box of disks. 
$12.00 at BOSKUG meetings; 
$13.00 by mail. Alan 
Chapman, 70 Gregory Rd., ~\ 
Framingham, MA 01701, 
(617) 877-6848. 



4 



LIBRARY NOTES 
by Charlie Bowen (Co-Librarian) 

THE NEW UTILITY DISK 

If you haven't been to a meeting 
since September, you probably haven't 
heard about our new utility disk, 
B0SKUG.101. It contains a collection of 
some of the most generally useful 
programs we have in the library: 

• Directory programs which arrange the 
directory of files on a disk in 
alphabetical order and tell you their 
length, the free space remaining, and 
other helpful information. 

• Disk housekeeping programs to let you 
look through the files on a disk, erase, 
copy, rename or view them at will without 
all the finicky little keystrokes 
required by CP/M. 

• Programs to print out files or display 
them on the screen, and programs to 
"unerase" files and to make disks 
containing bad sectors usable again. 

All that, and more. And, we've taken 
special care with the documentation so 
that even the most inexperienced users 
can begin taking advantage of some of 
these conveniences almost immediately. 

The disk boots up to a menu program 

(named INTRO) which will guide the user 

through its several documentation files. 

(One of these is a short introduction for 

experienced users, so they won't have to 

bother with more instructions than they 
need . ) 



* 



If you are copying the disk at a 
meeting, be sure to type "INTRO" at the 
point where the COPY program tells you to 



"Please enter an initial command line 
(name) .... If you push RETURN only 
you will get the normal A> prompt. ==>." 
This will make the menu program come on 
as soon as you boot up the disk (i.e. 
insert it and push RESET) . 

If you have already copied the disk 
without doing this, it's easy to fix. 
Just put your CP/M disk in Drive A and 
your copy of the utility disk in Drive B. 
Type COPY to start the Copy program, and 
select '0' ('Other') from the main menu. 
A new menu will give you a long list of 
functions to choose from. Choose 'S' 
('Sysgen'). This will do the same thing 
as the last part of the disk-copying 
function: "writing CP/M to the diskette" 
without affecting anything else that is 
already on it. You will immediately be 
asked to "enter an initial command line" 
just as you are in the COPY program. 
Type "INTRO" and hit the carriage return. 
(If rearranging the disk this way seems 
like too much trouble, you can run the 
INTRO program anytime you want to just by 
typing 'INTRO'.) 

A note of warning for KAYPRO 10 users. 
There is a program on the disk called 
MAKE.COM whose function is changing the 
user numbers of files. This capability 
may be of interest only to owners of the 
hard-disk system, but unfortunately we 
have received a report that it doesn't 
work properly with that system. It can 
be used with care, but since it doesn't 
check for filename duplication in 
different user areas, it can overwrite 
files. (We'll be removing this program 
from the next edition of the disk.) 

We have other disks ready to copy or 
in preparation: communications, lang- 
uages, games. Look for the updated bul- 
letins each meeting at the library desk. 



USER'S CORNER 
(cont. from p. 2) 

KEYBOARD TEMPLATES 

Find it difficult to 
remember commands you don't 
use every day? A keyboard 
template might help. It's 
a flat piece of plastic 
that fits over your compu- 
ter's keyboard and contains 
all the 'commands for a 
particular program, such as 
Perfect Writer or Wordstar. 
You don't have to plow 
through a crowded desk to 
find a command card; the 
template has the answer 



right on the keyboard. A 
keyboard template sells for 
about $20, although it pro- 
bably cost only a dollar or 
so to manufacture. Never- 
theless, you might find the 
convenience worth the money 

I use templates from two 
manufacturers. My Wordstar 
template is Kleertex brand 
from Creative Computer Pro- 
ducts (see Sept. Pro/Files, 
pps. 29 and 33). My Per- 
fect Writer template was 
made by CMB Enterprises. 
The Kleertex is the better 
of the two. The color is a 



nonglare gray, the letters 
are readily legible, and 
the plastic is heavy gauge. 
In contrast,' the CMB tem- 
plate is a cream color that 
can cause glare; the let- 
tering is small and faint; 
and the thin plastic has a 
tendency to jam keys. Iron- 
ically, putting the CMB 
template over the Kleertex 
raises it enough to elimi- 
nate the jamming problem. 
The CMB template is a few 
months old; perhaps the 
newer ones are better. 

(Nat Weiner) 




5 



HOW TO IMPROVE ON PERFECT- I ON: 

PLU*PERFECT WRITER 
by Lee Lockwood 

What's more perfect than Perfect? 
Pluperfect Writer! 

The Perfect Writer that many of us 
know and love (after all, it came bundled 
with the computer) is a pretty good word 

rocessor. However, perfect it ain't. 

ong after the demise of the early bugs, 
we still must put up with a program that 
won't do a lot of things it ought to (or 
we'd like it to). For instance, there's 
no easy way to reconfigure your numerical 
keypad so that a single keystroke invokes 
a sequence like CTRL — X, CTRL — C. And it 
doesn't let you save the same file to 
more than one disk or simply change docu- 
ment disks without exiting back to CP/M 
and doing a "warm boot." 



E 






Well, some brilliant folks out west 
have come to our rescue. Calling them- 
selves PluPerfect Software, they have 
come up with a "patch" to old Perfect 
Writer that produces some amazing 
improvements and gives you an enhanced 
version of CP/M 2.2 in the bargain. And, 
at $25.00 for the whole thing ($20 
through BOSKUG), it's a bargain! 

Here are some of the things Plu*Per- 
fect Writer does: 

1) WARM BOOT FROM WITHIN PERFECT 
WRITER. Just type CTRL— X W each time 

you change disks, and presto: the message 
"Warm Boot" appears on your screen! This 

means you can back up a file by saving it 
to two different disks, or that you can 
insert a file from another disk into one 
you're working on — all without going in 
and out through the menu. 



"Directory for Drive 
or "b" gives you both 



2) LOOK AT A DIRECTORY OF A DISK FROM 
WITHIN PERFECT WRITER. No need to go 
back to the menu. By typing CTRL— X 9 
you get a message: 
(?)" Typing "a' f 
the directory and the amount of space 
remaining on the disk - critical informa- 
tion that's not on the PW directories. 

3) CHANGE THE SIZE OF THE SWAP FILE. 
Remember the mysterious PWCONFIG, which 
the Perfect Writer Manual mentions but 
Kaypro doesn't package on its installa- 
tion disk? PWCONFIG allows you to 
change the size of the swap file. Do you 






need that? Well, if you're working on a 
text longer than about 15 pages, you're 
going to spend a lot of time with fingers 
poised over the keyboard waiting waiting 
for the computer to stop "swapping" text. 
A 64K swap file is okay for letters and 
shorter documents, but not for a novel 
(or even a short story). 

PluPerfect provides a program called 
SWPCNFIG that lets you design a swap file 
of any size up to the maximum size of the 
disk, as long as it's a multiple of 8K. 
A PW edit disk with a small swap file 
(say 16K) would be adequate for writing 
short letters, and the free space could 
be useful for letterheads, letter tem- 
plates, memo forms, envelopes, etc. 

4) RECONFIGURE THE KEYPAD. The regu- 
lar Kaypro configuration program is very 
limited, and the "bindings" program, deep 
in the bowels of PFCONFIG, is difficult 
and dangerous going. Plu*Perf ect s 
SWPCNFIG program lets you easily assign 
any PW command to any blue key on the 
keyboard. For instance, when I'm in PW 
and want to save a file, I type the Enter 
key. "Find File" (CTRL — X F) is the 
period on my keypad. I can turn these 
changes on and off from within PW simply 
by typing CTRL — X K. 

5) SWITCH TO OVERTYPE MODE. By typing 
CTRL— X CTRL— while in Perfect Writer, 
you begin overtyping whatever text is 
there. Type the same command again and 
you switch back to PW's normal 'insert" 
mode. (Or you can configure one of the 
blue keys to do this.) 

6) ENJOY AN ENHANCED VERSION OF CP/M 
2.2. One improvement is a new copy prog- 
ram called "Fastcopy" which is twice as 
fast as the current Kaypro Copy program. 
Another feature augments the resident 
CP/M TYPE command to allow you to scroll 
the file forwards or backwards one screen 
or one line at a time. It even lets you 
print the file by adding a "P" after the 
filename. 

There's more to Plu*Perfect Writer 
than I've space to describe here. This 
program is a rarity in the software world 
today: a genuine bargain. 









(I'm typing my blue ENTER key to save 
this. Now the blue key to exit. 
That's the way computers ought to be!) 

If you'd like to buy a copy at the 
BOSKUG discount, send your name, address 
and a check for $20.00, made out to 
ROBERT WATERS, to Bob at 23 Derby Lane, 
Weston, MA 02193.i 



6 



r* 



SMARTKEY 
by Alan Chapman 

SMARTKEY is just that. It is a superb 
CP/M utility program designed to provide 
intelligent keyboard facilities. Its 
applications are limited only by your 
imagination. Simply described, it allows 
you to redefine any and as many keys on 
your keypad as you desire to perform any 
single or multiple keystroke function. 
It allows you to turn your keypad, for 
example, into a dynamic editing tool that 
can call up entire paragraphs or even 
files with a single keystroke. 

SMARTKEY works on any CP/M-based sys- 
tem or program, and is easily adapted to 

any standard CP/M-86, PC-DOS or MS-DOS 
system. It is hardware independent and 
can be transported from program to prog- 
ram or machine to machine. Best of all, 
it f s inexpensive and easy to use. 

SMARTKEY has three program elements: 

SMARTKEY.COM is the basic command 
program. It can operate in either ASCII 
or HEX mode to suit your needs. 

FIXKEY.COM is a menu-driven program 
which allows you to create and change 
permanent definition files and turn 
SMARTKEY on and off. 






USRPATCH.COM contains user patch area 
listings for adapting SMARTKEY to 
specific needs and allows you to perma- 
nently change the program's operating key 
(<ESC>) to any other key. (This must be 
done with Perfect Writer, which uses 
<ESC> as a command key.) 

I acquired SMARTKEY to help me move 
back and forth between Perfect Writer and 
WordStar. I use both programs fre- 
quently, and I am constantly confusing the 
editing commands. I wanted a program 
that would let me create a single set of 
commands to perform the same functions in 
both programs. Most of the available 

Programs fell short in some way: PLUP- 
ERFECT works only with Perfect Writer; 
K-KEY and WORDKEY severely limit the 
number of keystrokes you can assign to a 
key. All three permit you to redefine 
only the 14-key numeric keypad and the 4 
cursor keys. Finally, I tried SMARTKEY, 
and it -exceeded even my wildest dreams. 
(Well, maybe not my wildest... but cer- 
tainly the ones about word processing!) 

As a starting point, I mapped a 
sequence of commands for Kaypro f s 14-key 
numeric keypad, which accounted for my 
most common editing commands (i.e., cur- 
sor movements, deletions, block moves). 



Using SMARTKEY, I redefined the numeric 
keypad to perform each function with the 
same single keystroke in both PW and WS. 
It only took a couple of minutes to set 
up the definition files for each program. 
When SMARTKEY and a definition file are 
called up from CP/M, they become 
"invisible," serving as an overlay on 
another .COM program, but not interfering 
with its operation. 

For added convenience, I used the 
Sysgen feature of the COPY program to 
have the program disks cold-boot SMARTKEY 
and the appropriate definition file 
directly into RAM, so that I can go 
directly to word processing with my 
numeric keypad all set for use. 

You can have as many definition files 
as you like on a disk, and you can load 
and save them as you need them. 

SMARTKEY is totally interactive. At 
any point in a document you can add or 
change the definition of any key on the 
keyboard without leaving the document. 
At the end of the session, you can choose 
to make the key definitions in SMARTKEY 
permanent by calling up FIXKEY and estab- 
lishing a permanent definition file, or 
you can discard them by simply cold- 
booting. If you began with a permanent 
definition file and made changes which 
you don't want to keep, cold-booting 
discards the changes and leaves your 
original definition file intact. 

Any application which requires repeti- 
tive strings or has cumbersome keystrokes 
is fair game for SMARTKEY. It is excel- 
lent for inserting frequently used BASIC 
or other programming language subroutines. 

Okay, guy, nothing's that good. What's 
the drawback? Well, there is one, albeit 
minor. SMARTKEY (4k), FIXKEY (Ilk) and 
the Definition files (Ik each) should 
reside on the program disk. With Word- 
Star, Filer and Calc this is no problem, 
but to fit these files on the Perfect 
Writer disk on a Kaypro II, you must 
reduce the SWAP file to 48k. On the Kay- 
pro 4 and 10, there is no such problem. 

SMARTKEY is sold by HERITAGE SOFTWARE, 
INC., 2130 S. Vermont Ave., Los Angeles, 
CA 90007. The SMARTKEY version I have 
(3.2) retails for $60. The latest ver- 
sion, SMARTKEY II, sells for $89, and 
has, I understand, some added features. 
The documentation is brief, well-written 
and well-organized. There are also two 
companion programs available: SMARTPRINT, 
which allows your word processing program 
to use all of your printer's features, 
and a SP00L/UNSP00L utility. § 



7 



"FLEXIBLE PRINTING" WITH PERFECT WRITER 
ON DOT MATRIX PRINTERS 
by David G. Hoag 

As you read the printer manual for 
your dot matrix printer, you will prob- 
ably^ discover appealing options that 
aren't mentioned in the formatting chap- 
ters of the Perfect Writer manual. For 
example: half-line superscripts and sub- 
scripts instead of the full line provided 
by PW; a clean, continuous underline 
instead of the individual "dashes" under 
each character that PW prints; the 
ability to change character size within 
your text to print a large eye-catching 
title; or the ability to change type 
style in a document. Here's how you can 
do these things. ..and more, depending on 
the capability of your printer. 

The key to all this flexibility is a 
valuable feature of PW that allows you to 
insert a character translation table 
between the character you type to the 
screen and the character code sent to 
your printer when you format your text. 
With this, selected characters can be 
used to initialize special printing fea- 
tures that you want to appear in your 
document. 

In the following description, I assume 
you are familiar with the PFCONFIG proce- 
dure of PW. If not, it's not too diffi- 
cult: Put a PW Edit Disk in drive A (use 
a copy for safety) and PW Installation 
Disk in B; boot with cont-C; and from the 
A> prompt, type "b:pfconfig <CR>"; then 
follow the screen instructions and menus. 
(I will identify the menu items you 
should be using with quotation marks.) 

You will also have to search your 
printer user manual for the initializa- 
tion codes for the printer features that 
in ASCII command character form. These 
codes are either "Escape" commands (the 
symbol l,A [" followed by some character) 
or Control" commands (the symbol ,,/M1 
followed by some character). 

[Note: Unless you have the new character- 
generation chip in your Kaypro, the f|A,f 
will appear on your screen as an up- 
arrow; however it means the same thing.] 

You may have to use an ASCII table to 
convert from the form given in your prin- 
ter manual to this command character 
form. You'll have to decide what little- 
used characters from your keyboard you 
will change into these command codes to 
the printer. Finally, you'll have to 
name this new "printer type" you are 
going to create. 



As an example, here's how I "for- 
matted" for my OKIDATA 92 printer. Other 
printers will probably be slightly dif- 
ferent, but the following four steps 
should still apply: 

STEP 1: On the first PFCONFIG menu, 
select "Define Printer Types" (#2) and 
then select "Define a new printer type" 
(#2). Name your printer format (I chose 
"OKIf" for OKIDATA flexible). The values 
for each of the new printer definition 
itens should be identical to your default 
printer type, except for Items 16 and 17. 
(Your default printer type is identified 
in "Select the default printer type." 
Its definition is listed under "update 
existing printer definition.") Item 16, 
regarding translation tables, should be 
answered "yes," and Item 17, which asks 
which translation table you wish to use, 
should be answered "Cf. 






STEP 2: Return to the main PFCONFIG menu 
and select "Edit character translation 
tables" (#) to modify translation table 
for your new use. Before you do this, it 
would be wise to go through the existing 
Translation Table to be certain the 
characters you are translated from and to 
correspond one-to-one. Correct any dif- 
ferences, then make the appropriate 
changes for the keyboard characters you 
are going to use for printer commands. I 
made the following translations for my 
OKIDATA printer: 



iJ6Ct 



K§Y. 



To 



Command 



Oki use 



126 



(tilda) — > 



96 


^ 


(accent 
grave) 


92 


\ 


(back 
slash) 


124 


j 


(vertical 






slash) 


38 


& 


(amper- 






sand) 



— > 



— > 



A/\ 



[ (escape ) 
(Cont- A ) 



\ (Cont-\) 



— > A ] (Cant-]) 



— > 



(Cant- ) 



Multiple 

use 

10 char/ 

inch 
12 char/ 

inch 
17 char/ 

inch 
doubling 

char 









STEP 3: Use these newly defined key 
characters in your document as you type 
it to indicate the printing characteris- 
tics you want. For example, _in my trans- 
lation table, typing "~Htext I" would 
make "text" print in enhanced form, and 
f, &text v " would make "text" print at 5 CPI 
in a line otherwise printing at 10 char/ 
inch. Your printer user manual will tell 
you what you can do. To avoid extra 
white space in your final document, be 
sure to type the command characters right 
next to the text, with no spaces between. 

STEP 4: When you "format" your finished 
document for print with PF, use option "D 

(cont. p. 12) 



8 



BYTES, NIBBLES & BITS... 






^ 



^ 



r* 



PERFECT SOFTWARE'S KayPro Technical 
Support is now located at their Berkeley, 
CA office. The Eugene, OR Tech Support 
Center was closed on Sep 15. Refer 
questions on Perfect Software to: 

PERFECT SOFTWARE, INC. 
702 Harrison St. 
Berkeley, CA 94710 
(415) 524-1926 (M-F, 7 a.m. -6 p.m., 

West Coast time)* 

BUSINESS COMPUTER NETWORK (BCN) UPDATE 

The BCN network publicized in Kay- 
pro's Pro/Files (Sep/Oct, 83) current 
supports @uonly@u the Hayes Smartmodem. 
BCN offered Kaypro owners a special deal 
on the Anchor Signalman Mark VII and 
supporting software. However, the modi- 
fications Anchor made to the Mark VII 
make it unusable with any other software, 
and it doesn't work properly with the 
Signalman version of BCN f s own software. 






BCN is working on debugging their 
Signalman-version software as well as 
software versions for Novation and U.S. 
Robotics modems, and they will be sending 
us copies for the BOSKUG library as soon 
as available. 

If you didn't see Pro/Files, BCN is a 
subsciption network which allows you to 
log on to most of the major national 
network services (e.g., The Source, 
CompuServe, Connexions, etc.) through a 
single membership at a modest 25-cents- 
per-connect fee. To advertise their 
service, they included free telecommun- 
ications software for a Hayes Smartmodem 
/Kaypro combination in Pro/Files. More 
Information and free software is avail- 
able from the BOSKUG library or by 
calling BCN toll-free at (800) 446-6255. | 












NEW KAYPRO MODELS 

After months of rumors, Kaypro has 
finally announced an 8/16 bit machine 
that will run MSDOS software. 
Essentially upgrades of existing Kaypros, 
the "Kaypro II Plus 88" and "Kaypro 4 
Plus 88 come equipped with a co-pro- 
cessor made by Kaypro and 256K of RAM. 

In the 8-bit mode, the machine will 
run all CP/M 80 software and allows 
access 'of most of the RAM as a third 
disk-drive. In 16-bit mode, it will run 
all IBM software written for MSDOS, but 
without graphics capability. Both 
machines come bundled with the usual CP/M 
software, plus MSDOS. 












Simultaneously, Kaypro announced that 
upgrade co-processor boards for the II 
and the 4 are available from SWP, Inc., 
Arlington TX. However, SWP has been 
advertising such boards for nearly a year 
already, so perhaps this isn't really 
anything new. M 

BUNDLED SOFTWARE 

Perfect Software is once again being 
bundled with the Kaypro 4 and 10, 
retroactive to August 1. That means that 
your dealer should furnish this software 
to you at no cost; or you can copy it in 
the BOSKUG library. (We also have 
Wordstar available for II owners.) 

The Uniform program, which allows the 
Kaypro to read from and write to other 
disk formats, has now been configured for 
the 4 and the 10. A limited version (5 
formats) is bundled with these machines 
and is available from dealers or our 
library. The full version of this 
marvelous program, also available for all 
Kaypros, works on about 20 different 
formats including MSDOS, TRSD0S and LD0S. 
It retails for $50 from Micro Solutions 
in DeKalb, IL (815-756-3421, attn Ron 
Proesel), or from Kaypro dealers. | 

REPAIRS 

For those having repair problems, 
S0RBUS, a national repair service, now 
does Kaypro-authorized warranty repairs 
and seems to do them reliably and quickly 
at a decent price. The local S0RBUS 
facility is at 209 W. Central St., 
Natick, 237-4550. Haven't heard any 
complaints so far. 

We would like to know more about mem- 
bers' experiences, both positive and 
negative, with Kaypro dealers and repair 
services so that we can answer more 
intelligently when prospective buyers 
call us asking for recommendations. If 
you have any information you'd like to 
share, please drop a line or speak up at 
a meeting. It will all be kept confiden- 
tial, of course. But it would be very 
helpful to know more, since so many 
dealers are springing up these days. 

KAYPRO EARNINGS 

Finally, for those worried that Kaypro 
might follow Osborne into the computer 
graveyard: Kaypro Corp. has reported net 
earnings for the year ended Aug. 31 of 
$12.9 million, on sales of $75.1 million. 
Kaypro shipped 53,000 computers that 
year. On the debit side, Kaypro common 
stock — which opened at $10 a share in 
September — is now selling around $7. 















9 



IF SAM SPADE HAD A KAYPRO....OR 

THE CASE OF THE UNDOCUMENTED 
PERFECT WRITER COMMANDS 
by Alan Chapman 

It was late. Past midnight. I was 
about to wrap it up for the night when I 
heard a soft knock on my office door. I 
quickly killed the lights. My right hand 
went to the desk drawer and closed around 
the handle of the .37 (a .38 with a low 
IQ); my left hand instinctively went to 
the keyboard, the fingers rapidly typed 
CTRL-X, CTRL-S. Now I was ready for this 
unexpected visitor. 

M Who f s there," I said in my best Bogart 
voice. All I could see through the 
frosted glass was a spot of light. 

I know how to change the indent 
column, Sam," a muffled voice answered. 



tt 



"Yea, what's it going to cost me 
edged along the wall toward the door. 



"A disk, Sam, just a blank disk. Open 
up quickly before someone sees me." 

The voice was soft, intriguing. I 
decided to take a chance. I threw the 
door open and stepped back as a lovely 
pixel sashayed in. I sensed immedrat^riry" 
that she was no ordinary pixel; she was 
brighter than any I had ever seen. We 
stared at each other for a long minute. 
She spoke first, softly, with only a 
trace of a Swedish accent. "I can also 
tell you how to insert a file into text." 




I knew I was in love, but business had 
to come first. "How do I know you're not 
lying to me.... the book doesn't say I can 
do those things." 



"Come on over to your Kaypro, Sam, 
I'll show you." She took my hands, they 
trembled; she guided them to the key- 
board. I could see her beautiful reflec- 
tion in the screen as she instructed me 
to type the following commands: 

CTRL-X . SETS INDENT command for defining 
an indent column which will automatically 
wrap the text. This feature is similar 
to a variable tab setting, but limited to 
a single column. It can be set by posi- 
tioning the cursor in the column you want 
to wrap on, or by typing ESC.(n) 
(n=column number) before typing this 
command. It is dynamic; it will disap- 
pear when you file the document. 

CTRL-X F SETS FILL COLUMN command changes 
the right hand fill column to allow you 



to make the line width on screen anything 
you like. It works in the same manner as 
the Set Indent command, either by posi- 
tioning the cursor to the column or by ^ 
preceding the command with an ESC.(n). 
The Set Fill command also is dynamic and 
disappears when you file the document. 
(However, the created text retains its 
format until you change it.) 

[To remember the indent or fill column 
numbers in a particular file, put them in 
a "@Comment()' f line the beginning of the 
file after the "@Style()" line.] 

CTRL-X I - INSERT A FILE at the cursor 
position. When typed, the screen command 
line (line 24) will ask, "File to Find 
<CR>:' Fill in the drive and file name, 
and it will copy that file into the cur- 
rent file beginning at the cursor position. 

CTRL-X R - WRITE A REGION of a document 
to a separate file. Simply insert the 
Set Mark (ESC. .Space Bar) at the begin- 
ning of the region you wish to write, 
move the cursor to the end of the region, 
type CTRL-X R. PW will respond, "Write 
Region to File<CR>:" Name the new docu- 
ment you wish to create with the region 
and voila!, you've done it. The command 
does not delete the region from the 
original document, it copies it, so it — ^ 
exists 4rftbot4i files. — mm ■■»-■■» mi j .«ji». \* 

CTRL-X > INDENTS AND CTRL-X < UNDENTS an 
entire section of your document at once. 
Set the Indent Column (CTRL-X .), then 
Set Mark (ESC. ..Space bar) at the begin- 
ning of the region you want indented, 
move the cursor to the end of the region 
and type this indent (or undent) command. 

ESC. .J INDENTS NEXT LINE and ESC...0 
INDENTS PREVIOUS LINE when typed at tne 
end of a line of text. They indent the 
next/last line to the same value as the 
line you have just typed. These commands 
are independent of the Indent Column 
command; you must manually indent one 
line with the TAB key. You can repeat 
this procedure as often as needed to 
indent a block of text. When you're 
done, simply hit <CR> to resume using the 
normal left margin. 

ESC...S CENTERS A LINE OF TEXT on the 
screen in the exact columns it will print 
(in verbatim mode) without having to 
adjust for the @ style command informa- 
tion. Useful when you want to see how 
things are going to line up when printed. ^ 
If you intent to print in Text mode, you 
will need to insert the "@Center()" 
command for printing purposes. 

(cont. p. 11) 



10 



SAM SPADE (cont. from p. 10) 







CNTL-Q QUOTE NEXT CHARACTER allows you to 
type control characters, such as CNTL and 
ESC, to the screen. For example, to type 
^fon the screen, type CNTL-Q followed by 
CNTL-Q. 















- 



"Oooh," she murmured as the characters 
danced across the screen, "You're a fast 
learner. I think you're ready for some 
shortcuts." I was ready for anything... 
with her. 






ESC...T deletes an entire line. Same 



as 









ESC . . . CTRL-K . 

ESC...— ^ reforms screen. Same as 









ESC . . . CTRL-L . 

ESC...1 or ESC...<LF> or ESC. .CTRL- J 
OPENS INSERT by dropping text one line at 
cursor point, keeping it in the same 
column. These commands differ from 
CNTL-0, which also drops the text, but 
brings it to the left margin. ESC... 
CNTL'-O CLOSES EITHER INSERT. 

CTRL-X, CTRL-R READS A FILE into the 
editing buffer. Similar to CTRL-X, 
CTRL-F . 



I got so excited I accidently warm- 
booted. Our eyes met. "That's perfect, 
writer," she said huskily. I shut down 
the Kaypro. It was time for other things. | 



BOSKUG PHONE DIRECTORY 
KAYPRO CORPORATION (Tech Support) 

SOFTWARE (619) 481-3920 

HARDWARE (619) 481-3424 

TECH SUPPORT 

BULLETIN BOARD (619) 481-3942 

PERFECT SOFTWARE 

GENERAL INFORMATION .. (800) 222-4222 
TECHNICAL SUPPORT .... (415) 524-1926 

BOSTON COMPUTER SOCIETY.(617) 367-8080 



BOSKUG 












LEE L0CKW00D (Co-Dir). 

BOB WATERS (Co-Dir) (h) 

(w) 

DIANE BUSHEE (Sec'y) O) 

(w) 

PHIL MARSHALL (Co-Libr 'n).(h) 

(w) 

CHARLES B0WEN (Co-Libr'n).... 

ALAN CHAPMAN (Newsltr) 

SURESH SHEN0Y (Programs)..(h) 

(w) 



965-6343 

894-5334 

893-6900 

787-1824 

437-2863 
232-2373 

589-1255 
332-2931 
877-6848 
862-5173 

655-6402 






r 



THE BOSTON KUGEL 

is published bimonthly by 
The Boston Kaypro Users* Group 

(BOSKUG) 
of the Boston Computer Society 

[c] Copyright 1983, BOSKUG 
All rights reserved. 

EDITOR: Alan Chapman 
(617) 877-6848 

MEMBERSHIP INFORMATION 

BOSKUG is the official Kaypro Users 
Group of the Boston Computer Society. 

BOSKUG is dedicated to the exchange 
of information and to helping Kaypro 
owners solve problems they may have 
with their machines, its software, or 
peripherals. BOSKUG meets semi-monthly 
on the 2nd and* 4th Tuesdays. Programs 
include lectures, panels, and hands-on 
workshops on CP/M, Perfect Software, 
applications and other programs avail- 
able for the Kaypro. Qualified repre- 
sentatives and consultants from Kay- 

o appear frequently at our meetings 
-o conduct discussions and answer 
questions. Meeting notices are carried 
in the BCS monthly CALENDAR and in 
its bimonthly magazine, UPDATE. 

For more information, complete the 
accompanying form or contact the 
Boston Computer Society at 367-8080. 



BOSKUG - The Boston Kaypro Users 1 Group 
The Boston Computer Society 
3 Center Plaza 
Boston, MA 02108 

Please complete and return this form to obtain more 
information about BOSKUG or to update your mailing 
address. 

NAME 



STREET 
CITY 



STATE 



ZIP 



TELEPHONE 



Check one: [ ] I am interested in joining BOSKUG, 

send me membership information. 

[ ] Change my address. 



11 






BOSTON KAYPRO USERS GROUP (BOSKUG) MEETING SCHEDULE 

The Kaypro Users f Group of the Boston Computer Society 

meets every second and fourth Tuesday of the month at the 

Minuteman Regional Vocational Technical School, Route 2A 
(Marrett Road), Lexington. 



■ 



Nov 22 - 



7:30 p.m. MODEMS - Speaker: Jay Sage. The use 

and application of various modems; 
public domain software; bulletin 
board services. 



Dec 13 - 6:30 p.m. Tutorial - Mike Weiss 

7:30 p.m. GAMES NIGHT - Conducted by Seth 

Holmes and Paul Evans. All the 
goodies you can play on a Kaypro. 
Workshops follow presentation. 

Dec 27 - 7:30 p.m. WORKSHOP MEETING Bring your Kaypro! 

■ 

Jan 10 - 6:30 p.m. Tutorial - Mike Weiss 

7:30 p.m. DATABASES - Mike Holmes compares 

Perfect Filer & Dbase II. 
Workshops follow. 






Jan 24 - 7:30 p.m. 









THE CARE & FEEDING OF A KAYPRO 
Speaker: Tom Barraford, Microsail 
Computers. Maintenance tips; 
IBM Software for Kaypro. 






Your ideas for lectures or panel discussion topics and 
volunteers to participate in the programs arejiorejthan. 
welcome. ConxacX Tfogf am Chairman Suresh Shenoy" 
(655-6402 - days; 862-5173 - eves). 






MtaMM 



THE BOSTON KUGEL 

THE BOSTON KAYPRO USERS' GROUP (BOSKUGi 

NOV-DEC 1983 VOL 1 NO 2 



NONPROFIT 
U.S. POSTAGE 

PAID 
BOSTON, MA 
PERMIT 1138 


















. 
























■ 





















FLEXPRINT 

(cont. from p. 8) 



- Format for a different 
device type," and name 
answer with the name you 
gave your flexible printer 
type, then select ff G ff to 
format the file for print. 

These new features work 
only for text you format 
with your new "printer 
type. 1 Text normally for- 
matted will allow you to 
use all the keys with 
their original meaning 
unchanged. 

In a future article, 
I'll explain how you can 
expand flexible printing 
for use with a dot matrix 
printer to allow you to 
insert entirely new char- 
acters within your text 
(such as a little happy 
face), and how you can 
draw simple pictures on 
your printer and nest them 
neatly within your text. 

__X!ll -try to .ms we r 

questions by phone, bet- 
ween 7 and 9 evenings, 
(617) 533-6353. I have 
some more detailed explan- 
ations which I'll sena you 
in your stamped self- 
addressed envelope. 
Include an extra unlicked 
stamp or two to compensate 
me for xeroxing costs. 

David G. Hoag 

116 Winthrop St. 

Medway, MA 02053. 










OTte 
O 

O Computer 
O Society 



Three Center Plaza 



Boston, Massachusetts 02108 






N 






12 



' 









-